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Menentukan Pemimpin Menurut Islam (1) | Keluarga Mahasiswa Islam ITB

Menentukan Pemimpin Menurut Islam (1)

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Pada tulisan sebelumnya, kita telah membahas kriteria-kriteria pemimpin yang baik dan benar menurut Islam. Setelah kita mengetahui pemimpin seperti apa yang baik dan benar menurut Islam, selanjutnya kita pun hendaknya mengetahui prosedur dan tahapan memilih pemimpin menurut Islam. Jadi, intinya jika pada tulisan sebelumnya kita menjawab pertanyaan yang berhubungan dengan \”what?\”, sekarang kita akan menjawab pertanyaan yang berhubungan dengan \”how?\” Dalam tulisan ini, kata khalifiah berarti pemimpin.

Dalam Islam, keberadaan seorang pemimpin menjadi sangat urgen dan wajib adanya. Bahkan dalam hadits Rasulullah yang diriwayatkan oleh Abu Daud dan Abu Hurairah dinyaatakan bahwa, jika ada tiga orang bepergian, hendaknya mereka mengangkat salah seorang dari mereka menjadi pemimpin. Dari hadits tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa jika dalam perkara bepergian (safar) saja telah diwajibkan memilih pemimpin, apalagi dalam perkara memilih pemimpin dalam tatanan kenegaraan, tentu hal ini menjadi lebih wajib lagi.

Namun bukan berarti manusia berhak menentukan sendiri metode penagangkatan pemimpin. Allah melalui Rasul-Nya telah memberikan contoh bagaimana cara memilih pemimpin dalam sistem Islam. Dan satu-satunya metode yang diakui oleh Islam dalam mengangkat kepala negara adalah dengan baiat. Dari baiat ini akan diperoleh seorang pemimpin (khalifah) yang akan merangkul dan menyatukan seluruh kaum muslimin, dibawah pemerintahannya.

Dalam perspektif syariat Islam kondisi masyarakat bukanlah dasar untuk menentukan status hukum suatu perkara. Bagaimana pun kondisinya Al-Quran dan Sunah Rasulullah tatap harus dijadikan sebagai pijakan baku. Ibarat suatu kampung dimana sebagaian besar warganya tidak melaksanakan shalat, bukan berarti hukum shalat berubah menjadi tidak wajib karena melihat realitas warganya. Shalat akan tetap menjadi amalan wajib bagaimanapun kondisi suatu daerah. Singkatnya realitas-lah yang harus diubah agar sesuai dengan syariat Islam, bukan sebaliknya.

Yang menjadi pertanyaan di benak kita, apa itu baiat? Baiat adalah akad sukarela antara rakyat orang yang dipercaya untuk menjadi kepala negara yang akan memerintah mereka berdasarkan hukum-hukum Allah. Karena itu bisa dikatakan baiat adalah satu-satunya metode pengangkatan kepala negara dalam sistem Islam. Allah swt melalui lisan Rasulullah telah mewajibkan kepada kaum muslimin agar dipundaknya terdapat baiat. Bahkan Rasulullah menyifati orang yang mati namun dipundaknya tidak ada baiat, seperti orang yang mati dalam keadaan jahiliyah.

Wajibnya membaiat seorang khalifah tak bisa dibantah lagi. Ijma’ sahabat secara jelas telah menunjukkan hal itu. Saat Rasulullah wafat, para sahabat menunda penguburan jenazah Beliau. Rasulullah wafat pada waktu dhuha hari senin dan baru dikebumikan pada Selasa malam (malam Rabu) setelah Abu Bakar dibaiat sebagai khalifah pengganti Rasulullah.  Mereka lebih menyibukkan diri untuk membaiat seorang khalifah. Padahal menyegerakan pemakaman jenazah adalah wajib namun ternyata mereka menganggap membaiat seorang khalifah jauh lebih penting.

Syariat Islam adalah aturan yang begitu sempurna. Ketika umat Islam diwajibkan mengangkat seorang khalifah, maka syariat Islam juga telah menentukan baiat sebagai satu-satunya metode pengangkatan khalifah. Kedudukan baiat sebgai metode pengangkatan khalifah sudah ditetapkan berdasarkan baiat kaum muslimin kepada Rasulullah saw di Madinah dan berdasarkan perintah Beliau kepada kita untuk mebaiat seorang imam/khalifah. Saat di Madinah baiat kaum muslimin kepada Rasulullah saw sesungguhnya bukanlah baiat atas kenabian. Karena tak perlu diragukan lagi bahwa tak ada satu pun sahabat Rasulullah pada saat itu yang meragukan kenabian Beliau. Jadi baiat itu bukanlah ditujukan untuk membenarkan kenabian Beliau, melainkan sebagai pengakuan atas kapasitas Rasulullah sebagai penguasa/pemimpin negara dan bukan sebagai nabi dan rasul. Sebab pangakuan atas kenabian dan kerasulan adalah perkara iman bukan masalah baiat. Disinilah terlihat begitu erat korelasi antara baiat dan terpilihnya pemimpin dalam pemerintahan Islam.

Lalu bagaimana tata cara pembaiatan seseorang untuk menjadi khalifah? Bukankah dalam sejarah Islam, banyak sekali model pengalihan kekuasaan? Memang prosedur praktis yang bisa menyempurnakan pengangkatan khalifah menggunakan prosedur teknis yang berbeda-beda, namun semuanya masih dalam koridor baiat. Jika ditelaah dari sirah sahabat ada dua jenis baiat yaitu baiat in’iqad dan baiat ta’at.

Baiat in’iqad adalah baiat yang menunjukkan legalitas orang yang dibaiat sebagai khalifah yang akan menjadi pemilik kekuasaan dan dia berhak ditaati, ditolong dan wajib diikuti selama tidak bertentangan dengan Al-Quran dan Sunnah.

Baiat ta’at adalah baiat kaum mulsimin terhadap khalifah terpilih dengan memberikan ketaatan kepadanya. Baiat ta’at ini bukanlah dimaksudkan untuk mengangkat khalifah karena khlaifah sudah ada. Pendapat ini didasarkan pada ijma sahabat. Misalnya pada saat pembaiatan Abu Bakar menjadi khliafah pertama penggati Rasulullah.  Abu Bakar diangkat oleh sebagian sahabat, sebagai representasi dari semua sahabat, baik dari kalangan Muhajirin maupun Anshar. Pembaitan tersebut dilakukan di Saqifah dan keesokan harinya kaum muslimin dikumpulkan di masjid, kemudian Abu Bakar berbicara di atas mimbar. Namun sebelum Abu Bakar berbicara, Umar mendahuli pembicaraan dengan mengatakan, \”Sesungguhnya Allah telah mengumpulkan urusan kalian kepada pundak orang terbaik di antara kalian.  Dia Sahabat yang berdua bersama Rasul di gua.  Berdirilah kalian, baiatlah dia.” Pada saat itu kaum muslimin yang hadir langsung membaiat Abu Bakar setalah pembaiatan di Saqifah. Pembaiatan Abu Bakar di Saqifah oleh beberapa sahabat adalah baiat in’iqad, sedangkan pembaiatan kaum muslimin di masjid adalah baiat ta’at. Hal ini pun terjadi pada khalifah setelahnya. Metode ini memberikan gambaran dan penegasan tentang keridhaan rakyat kepada khalifah.

Walaupun dalam prakteknya terdapat beragam teknis pelaksanaan, namun substansi dasarnya tetap sama yaitu baiat yang mana di dalamnya terdapat baiat in’iqad dan baiat ta’at. Bagaimanapun teknis pelaksanaannya yang jelas khalifah dibaiat oleh rakyat untuk melaksanakan hukum Allah, sehingga rakyat wajib taat dan patuh kepada khalifah. Begitupun seorang khalifah, menduduki tampuk pimpinan bukan karena terdorong motif ekonomi, namun semata-mata hanya untuk melaksanakan perintah Allah. Sehingga khalifah benar-benar akan menjadi pengembala untuk rakyatnya. Sekali lagi perbedaan teknis pelaksanaan bukanlah masalah, asal tetap dalam mekanisme baiat.

Selanjutnya, yang menjadi pertanyaan kita, dalam peimilah seorang pemimpin, siapa sajakah yang terlibat di dalam proses tersebut? Dalam pemilihan seorang pemimpin atau khalifah, ada tiga golongan manusia yang terlibat:

  1. Calon Khalifah yang memenuhi syarat
  2. Anggota pemilih yang disebut ‘Ahl al-Hal wa al-’aqd‘
  3. Serta orang Muslim kebanyakan

Syarat-syarat menjadi anggota ‘Ahl al-Hal wa al-’aqd’ agar layak memilih ketua negara adalah:

  1. Adil, sebagaimana sifat adil yang diperlukan pada Khalifah.
  2. Berilmu, yaitu memiliki ilmu yang membuatnya mampu menilai calon yang layak memegang jabatan ketua negara.
  3. Bijaksana, yaitu mampu memilih calon yang terbaik untuk kebaikan dan kemaslahatan umat.

Tugas anggota ‘Ahl al-Hal wa al-’aqd’ adalah memilih dan menentukan calon yang layak untuk jabatan ketua negara. Para ulama berbeda pendapat mengenai jumlah anggota pemilih tersebut.

  1. Tidak sah menjadi calon ketua negara apabila tidak disetujui oleh semua anggota pemilih dari setiap negeri. Alasannya supaya persetujuan tersebut berlaku secara keseluruhan dan penyerahan kekuasaan kepada calon pemimpin tersebut berlaku secara ijmak. Namun pendapat ini bertentangan dengan kasus pemilihan Khalifah Abu Bakar, dimana beliau telah dipilih oleh anggota yang hadir saja.
  2. Jumlah minimum anggota pemilih adalah lima orang dan semuanya setuju dengan pemilihan tersebut.  Atau hanya seorang saja yang membuat pilihan, sedangkan yang lainnya tinggal bersetuju dengan pilihan orang pertama.
  3. Pemilihan dilakukan oleh tiga anggota saja, dimana seorang akan memilih dan yang lainnya tinggal menyetujui saja. Mereka dianggap sebagai seorang Hakim dan dua orang saksi.
  4. Ada juga pendapat yang mengatakan bahwa pemilihan calon khalifah cukup dibuat oleh satu orang saja.

Setelah anggota pemilihan memilih calon-calon pemimpin, maka diperlukan persetujuan terbuka dari mayoritas umat.
(bersambung ke bagian 2)

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